BWP 1/2019 (BWP magazine)

Routes into vocational education and training

BWP 1/2019

How will vocational education and training fulfil the objective of offering initial VET for everyone and of facilitating relevant career prospects? In the light of falling training figures, this issue investigates the question of which young people opt VET, what their motives are for doing so and how they find a route into training. At the same time, it also focuses on the types of support provision that makes it easier for young people to gain this access.


Friedrich Hubert Esser

What needs to be done first and foremost!

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Vocational education and training in figures

Regina Dionisius, Stephanie Oeynhausen, Frank Neises

More and more refugees in vocational education and training – which figures are the right ones?

Increasing numbers of refugees are successfully progressing to VET. But just how many people are we actually speaking about? Different numbers are stated within the public debate. Some press reports make mention of around 9,500 in 2017, while others put the figure as high as 28,500. How can these numbers be reconciled? This article provides a summary of the various data sources together with indications as to how these varying amounts are arrived at.

Special Focus

Julian Marciniak, Rebekka Steiner, Andreas Hirschi

Career choice readiness of young people – which factors are important for a successful career choice?

Numerous academic research constructs have been developed regarding the question of which factors are important for a successful career choice. This article provides a summary of these constructs from a career research perspective. It also considers the integrative construct of “career choice readiness”, which encompasses the core elements of previous constructs. A career resource questionnaire is presented for the purpose of measurement. This enables all key areas of career choice readiness to be efficiently recorded. An explanation is also provided of how the measurement instrument presented can be used in practice. The article concludes by showcasing the initial findings to emerge from a major research project on development of career choice readiness conducted in Switzerland.
Matthias Rübner, Stefan Höft

Career choice readiness of young people in vocational preparation schemes

Initial situation, development and success criteria

A high degree of career choice readiness is usually deemed to be a key target objective of the vocational preparation schemes that are normally offered at the end of the period of general schooling. But what is the significance of the development of career choice readiness following completion of school, especially if the transitional process does not run smoothly? Using an empirical study on vocational preparation schemes carried out by the Bundesagentur für Arbeit [Federal Employment Agency] as a basis, this article investigates the extent to which career choice readiness also represents an important reference value within this context, and studies the nature of the correlation between such readiness, individual course of measures and destination of participants.
Annalisa Schnitzler

Upper secondary certificate, and then what?

Factors which induce upper secondary school leavers to enter vocational education and training

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In light of the rising numbers of students, this article investigates the question of which pupils are planning to commence a programme VET despite being in possession of a higher education entrance qualification. Data from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) is used to identify factors which encourage pupils in their twelfth school year to adopt such a plan. The findings show that influences from within the social environment, the vocational orientation process and evaluations of costs, benefits and opportunities undertaken by the young people are all of relevance. These results finally serve as a basis for the derivation of proposals for vocational orientation.
Birgit Reinbothe, Simone Danek, Gunda Fischer

Supporting young people and companies at the start of training

Experiences from implementing the special “Future chance assisted training” concept adopted by Saxony-Anhalt

  Completion of vocational education and training and a successful transition into the occupation are important prerequisites for social participation. Young people who are disadvantaged and require a high level of support need individual assistance along this pathway. Not all companies are able to provide such help. This is where the instrument of assisted training (AsA) comes in. The State of Saxony-Anhalt has successfully implemented assisted training in combination with its own specialist concept. What findings can be derived for the further development of assisted training? And how can sustainable integration of young people into the labour market be supported?  
Sophie Krug von Nidda

What influence do company selection criteria have on application success by young people from a migrant background?

  Young people from a migrant background are less likely than others to progress to fully qualifying vocational education and training following completion of schooling. Company recruitment practices may be one of the reasons for it. This article makes reference to Imdorf’s convention-sociological model in investigating which selection criteria constitute the structure of company recruitment processes and how these affect the application success of young people from a migrant background. It shows that assessment of team adaptability plays a major role.  
Klaus Kohlmeyer

Berlin needs you!

Piloting new points of access to training

  Young people from families with a history of migration are disproportionately likely to not complete vocational education and training. An initiative adopted by the Berlin Senate has helped to bring about a significant rise in the proportion of such people who are undergoing training in the public sector. This article presents the “Berlin needs you!” concept. It also shows the barriers to access to training that were identified within the scope of the initiative and how new access points to vocational education and training are being piloted.  

Digital trainee marketing

Interview with Christopher Knieling on new recruitment strategies in the chemical sector

  “Elemental Diversity” (EIVi) is a training campaign that has been launched by employer associations in the chemical industry. As well as including conventional marketing instruments such as a training place exchange, brochures and flyers, the campaign places a main focus on digital formats and videos in order to encourage young people to enter training in the chemical sector.  
Karin Linde

Part-time training pathways – challenges and experiences in North Rhine-Westphalia

  Looking after small children or caring for family members whilst pursuing vocational education and training at the same time represents a particular challenge. Many young mothers fail to complete VET for this reason, and this has consequences for their own personal development and that of their children. Part-time training is one way of achieving a better work-life balance and is a route that has been facilitated by the Berufsbildungsgesetz [Vocational Training Act] and the Handwerksordnung [Crafts and Trades Regulation Code] since 2005. It has not, however, proved to be an instant success. Many companies and young people are unaware that the option is available. A state programme has been launched in North Rhine-Westphalia to support part-time training. This article illustrates the experiences that have been gleaned and explain the action which is required in order to create even greater awareness for part-time training and to establish it on a firmer footing in all types of regular support provision.  
Marco Blasczyk, Alfred Will

yourPUSH – from the lecture theatre to dual vocational education and training

New pathways for higher education doubters

  The trend towards academisation is exacerbating the shortage of skilled workers in the craft trades sector in particular. At the same time, however, many young people are dropping out of programmes of higher education study without achieving a degree. The Goethe University and the Frankfurt-Rhine-Main Chamber of Crafts and Trades have joined forces in a cooperation project to link up various methods of contacting higher education doubters and enabling them to move into vocational training in the dual system.  

Other Themes

Digital world – education and work in transformation societies

Interview with Prof. Dr. Ulrike Buchmann on the occasion of the 20th University Conference on Vocational Education and Training

  The 20th University Conference on Vocational Education and Training will take place between 11 and 13 March 2019. This year’s venue is the University of Siegen. Specialist representatives from the fields of academic research, policy and VET practice have been invited to discuss the current challenges being created by the digital world of work and employment. 19 conference sessions and 21 workshops will offer a broad spectrum of topics and issues. An interview with this year’s coordinator Prof. Dr. Ulrike Buchmann provides a brief foretaste of what participants in Siegen can expect.  
Constanza Correa Sarmiento, Martin Klede, Henrik Schwarz

Introduction of dual elements into vocational education and training in Paraguay

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  The objective of the project “MoPaDual – Modelo paraguayo de Formación Dual” is to establish dual VET in Paraguay. At the request of the Paraguayan Ministry of Labour, BIBB is advising its partners in the country on the creation of institutional foundations and on the development of VET standards. This article describes the initial results to emerge from the cooperation, taking the development of occupational profiles and curricula as an example.  
Bodo Rödel, Christian Woll

VET Repository as a central storage location for Open Access publications relating to vocational education and training

BIBB’s new specialist information service goes online

  BIBB has instigated the next stage of its Open Access Policy and continued the implementation of the Berlin Declaration, to which it is a signatory, by establishing a special repository for vocational education and training (VET Repository). The new VET Repository has its basis in the Vocational Education and Training Literature Database (LDBB). The aims are to undertake a systematic collation of full texts relating to VET which are available via Open Access and to make research possible from a single central location. This article explains the background to this development and goes on to describe the added value which the new specialist information service will deliver for the VET community.  


Verena Schneider, Henrik Schwarz

The IT continuing training system – in need of reform

  The IT continuing training system (IT-WBS) was launched with much early praise in 2002 and has gone on to be evaluated several times since its introduction. An investigation aimed at preparing for a realignment was concluded in June 2018. The focus was on the level of Operative Professionals, in particular the growing requirements in the area of IT security.  

The Board of BIBB

Thomas Vollmer

Report on the 3/2018 Board Meeting on 12 December 2018 in Bonn

  The last Board Meeting of 2018 took place under the chairmanship of Elke Hannack, employee representative. The main content focuses were the current situation on the training market and the strategic realignment of BIBB research via the introduction of “thematic clusters”. Topics such as the so-called “holistic written record of training” and BIBB’s activities in the field of Open Educational Resources (OER) in vocational education and training were also presented.