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Who opts for vocational education training and what do young people like about it? How mobile are they? What requirements do they bring with them and what expectations do they have of working life?
Trainees are the focus of the BWP edition published for the start of the new training year. The issue presents a varied picture offering both suggestions and new ideas for addressing the target group as well as for the organisation of training.
The integration of refugees in training is currently one of the key socio-political challenges facing Germany. But how successful has this been so far? In the 2016 migration study, which was conducted by the BIBB in cooperation with the Bundesagentur für Arbeit [Federal Employment Agency] around 1,600 vocational education and training (VET) applicants from a refugee background were surveyed about their current situation and on their views and opinions. The results highlight the problems perceived by refugees on their way into training and the areas in which they would like to have support.
It's not just the different qualification stages and career choice decisions which mark the transition into adulthood for young people – it's also, for example, beginning to live independently away from the parental home, the first romantic relationship, or moving in with your partner. Growing up is therefore more than simply taking the step to being financially independent. The article considers various steps towards independence and investigates points in time and factors which influence these steps on the basis of the German Youth Institute (DJI) survey AID:A (“Growing up in Germany: everyday worlds”[Aufwachsen in Deutschland: Alltagswelten]).
There are marked differences in the training and career aspirations of young, native Germans and of young people from a migration background. But how can these differences be explained? While established approaches to explaining this focus on individuals and their families, the article uses data from the National Educational Panel to reveal that the type of school, the school culture and the composition of the school class also have a key role to play.
Young people continue to have gender-specific ideas regarding their professional future. This also applies to pupils who participated in a pilot project at the Schkopau Polytechnic Centre (PTZ). Besides influences on their career aspirations which originate from group behaviour and from the parental home, experiences with their own practical work also have a role to play when facing up to the world of occupations. However, results presented in the article indicate that this essentially achieves very little in creating a fresh perspective – for example, a stronger interest among girls in technical occupations.
As part of the demographic development and the trend towards university entrance qualifications, it is becoming more difficult for companies to find applicants for their trainee positions. However, this is quite possibly not their only problem. This is because young people interested in training – significantly less in number, but more frequently possessing a higher-level school leaving certificate – might be tempted to exploit their strength and market position and increase their demands on businesses. Based on the 2016 Applicant Survey conducted jointly by the Bundesagentur für Arbeit (BA) and the BIBB, the article examines what training position applicants are asking for from companies and how strongly their requirements are influenced by the training market situation and their access opportunities.
The four dual IT training occupations have enjoyed huge popularity since they were created in 1997. But does that also mean that the majority of trainees in these occupations are satisfied with their training? The article presents results relating to this based on a survey of 1,767 trainees.
For young people and young adults, the transition from school into professional life is associated with a range of challenges and stresses of varying types. There is also the added aspect of a lifestyle characterized by digital media, which often results in stress and adverse impacts on health. The article uses a health and stress analysis to highlight the health risks in adolescence. This focuses mainly on the impacts of a high level of media consumption and sleep deficit. Health promotion measures are derived on the basis of this and general conditions for successful implementation and training are specified.
Brexit has come to pass, the consequences of the financial crisis are not yet overcome, the refugee situation, and the ongoing high level of youth unemployment in some member states demand more unity than ever before from the European Union. However, the EU is in crisis and currently does not enjoy a particularly positive reputation. In light of this, the article examines the attitudes to the EU of young people and young adults from eight European countries. The focus is mainly on the issue of youth unemployment and on refugees. To conclude, the attitudes and involvement of German young people and young adults as well as factors influencing this are examined in greater detail.
Lukas Brandl, born in 1993, completed his training as an electronics technician for automation technology with Evonik Technology & Infrastructure GmbH at their site in Marl in January 2017. In autumn, he will finish his “Industrial Service Management” dual course of study at the Dortmund University of Applied Sciences. He used the time between completing his training and starting his Bachelor’s thesis for a two-month placement abroad at the Evonik's site in the city of Mobile, Alabama.
Following her intermediate school leaving certificate, Lena Langguth, who was born in 1995, started her training as management assistant for retail services at Müller Ltd. & Co. KG in Aschaffenburg. With help from Erasmus+, it was possible for her to complete a three-week placement in a shop belonging to the Oxfam aid organisation in Brighton, England.
Employment and training are the keys to economic and social integration of refugees. However, to support their access to the employment and training market, targeted initiatives are demanded from all stakeholders from politics, business and society. The state of Hessen has established the general conditions for this with its programme “Business integrates”.
The integration of refugees in the education, training and employment system is critical for their successful integration in society. Companies in particular should assume a key role in this, but for them this is often uncharted territory. The article examines which offers of support companies are aware of and which they use.
Companies have been involved in dual training in the Philippines since 1994. However their participation rate is minimal and the dual system of vocational education and training is not the focus of government stakeholders. Greater transparency of costs and benefits relating to company training might contribute to initiating, and empirically justifying, education policy decision-making which is specifically targeted at consolidating this qualification pathway. The article introduces key finds from the cost-benefit analysis as well as survey results which are considered in terms of recommendations for the next steps in the conclusion.
Graduates of initial and advanced vocational training should be provided with the same career opportunities and earnings potential as those with a Bachelor's degree. This is the core requirement of the “initiative for the equivalence and attractiveness of vocational education and training”. It demands that the classification of these qualifications in the German qualification framework is also understood within the context of education legislation and under collective bargaining law. The purpose of this is to establish a degree of educational equality and to combat the shortage of skilled workers who have achieved their qualifications in a practical context. The article highlights the background to and demands of the initiative.
The teacher training law in North Rhine-Westphalia incorporates inclusion-oriented issues as an integral part of teacher training. For vocational teacher training, this means linking inclusion and heterogeneity in the teaching methodology and in the vocational specialisms with the specialist content. The article discusses the issue of which starting points health occupations offer due to their specific task and activity areas.
The revised training regulations for air traffic assistants and service employees in air traffic will enter into force on 1 August 2017 at the start of the new training year. These take the modified general conditions in the air traffic sector into account. For air traffic assistants in particular, fundamental reforms have taken place with respect to training content and examination structures. The article introduces the main reforms relating to structure and content.
The main focus of the first meeting of the board in its tenth term in office, led by Dr. Hans-Jürgen Metternich, was the integration of refugees and vocational education and training 4.0. The board also passed a recommendation which assumes a position relating to “dual courses of study”.