Recommendations for the Vietnamese VET-strategy
For the second time within 20 years, BIBB provided advice on the development of a national 10-year VET-strategy for Viet Nam. BIBB developed the recommendations with support of its Vietnamese partner institution NIVT (National Institute for Vocational Training) and GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit). Results are now available.
The BIBB recommendations are based on the advisory project results for the Vietnamese VET strategy development 2021-2030 within the framework of the GIZ Programme Reform of TVET in Viet Nam. The partners conducted the project from March to July 2020. Recommendations were made in eight strategic focal areas of VET, defined jointly between BIBB, NIVT and GIZ. A core part of recommendations is referring to governance of VET, as one of the strategic focal areas, including the legal framework and management of the VET system, the cooperation with the business sector as well as the financing of VET. Central recommendations are:
- Greater involvement of the business sector in the governance of VET through an appropriate coordination and cooperation mechanism,
- Stronger orientation towards the requirements of the labour market when implementing cooperative training in enterprises,
- Defining and establishing functions and mandates of the public and business sectors in the management of the VET system, and
- Expansion of public relations to communicate the benefits of cooperative training for enterprises in order to achieve greater participation by the business sector.
Despite the persistent need for an increased cooperation with the business sector, respondents recognized a generally positive development in VET governance. However, many stakeholders claimed for increased support of enterprises to improve coordination mechanisms further. The main obstacles that hinder enterprises from offering in-company training were complicated administrative procedures, the costs associated with training and a lack of communication regarding training opportunities and the benefits of training. The fact that the government reacted to this challenge through its VET Law and an amendment to the Labour Code in 2019, providing a definition of VET and defining the rights and obligations of enterprises in cooperative training, did not yet provide satisfying solutions. Additionally, specific guidelines for implementing the legal provisions and processes for VET are lacking.
Another major part of recommendations in the field of VET governance is focusing on the area of VET monitoring and reporting:
- Development of system monitoring in conjunction with systematic VET research to ensure evidence-based policy advice,
- Standardization of data collection procedures for all stakeholders (government agencies/enterprises/VET institutes) to improve monitoring and reporting on VET, and
- Introduction of an online reporting system that ensures regular and accurate updating with primary data.
In the field of monitoring and reporting, most respondents regarded reliable VET-related data and information for decision-making as crucial. However, respondents considered the data available insufficient, because of it being too general, not timely and of low quality. Despite the efforts already made by the Vietnamese Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) to improve the VET reporting system, the current state of data collection is not sufficient to enable evidence-based policy advice. The development of consistent system monitoring in conjunction with systematic VET research is the key to a demand-oriented and evidence-based VET system. An analysis of legal and VET related documents as well as a survey among 59 stakeholders (ministries, regional departments of labour, VET colleges, universities, enterprises, associations and social organisations and development partners) from the Vietnamese VET system form the data basis for the recommendations. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the survey was conducted digitally and by telephone. The presentation and discussion of the results with the Vietnamese partners took place in hybrid workshops