Quality assurance in the German dual vocational training system takes place at many levels and is closely linked to the long tradition of the system. The following outline focuses on the 11 main quality assurance elements illustrated in the BIBB publication “Quality assurance of company-based training in the dual system in Germany”.
The Data Report is issued by the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) and supplements the Report on Vocational Education and Training published by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) by providing a wealth of information and analysis relating to various aspects of the development of vocational education and training. The Data Report to accompany the Report on Vocational Education and Training is published annually.
Source: BIBB, Germany
„Ausbildungsberuf“ is a German term which usually is translated by the term "training occupation". It means a scientific, social and labour market-based construct and a category of order agreed by consensus between the social partners and the state. With the help of "Ausbildungsberufe" the selection and bundling of activities and the associated necessary qualifications is carried out. Mastery of the work tasks combined in a "Ausbildungsberuf" is the objective of the respective vocational training ("professional competence to act")
There are currently around 330 training occupations in Germany that enjoy national state recognition. For all training occupations, there are training regulations that stipulate in a binding fashion what must be learned within the respective occupation. This provides trainers with an overview of all contents that they need to impart to their trainees during training. Company owners obtain the relevant training regulations from the chamber responsible for their company.
The aim of the training regulations is to ensure that all trainees receive good professional training with comparable contents, regardless of the company in which such training takes place. This enables them to apply for jobs anywhere at a later date, and company owners also know precisely what applicants have learned. The regulations provide state-recognised occupations with a structure. The aim wherever possible is for each trainee to learn the fundamental principles of an occupation before going on to acquire the respective technical knowledge and gather initial professional experience.
The training regulations include the
The general training plan forms the basis for the company training plan, which parties providing training are required to draw up for their trainees and submit to the chamber responsible together with the training contract.
The learning contents stipulated by the training regulations constitute minimum requirements. It may be in the company’s interests to teach their trainees more, such as company-specific knowledge or special skills. In addition, the company providing training may amend its plan during training for operational reasons.
After all, it is not always possible to plan three years in advance.
During training, trainees are required to take part in an intermediate examination if this is stipulated in the training regulations. The intermediate examination is conducted by the chamber responsible, which also issues examination invitations. The company and the vocational school use the intermediate examination to identify the status of trainee knowledge. The result of the intermediate examination should be taken into account during the course of ongoing training.
Training concludes with the final examination, which is also conducted by the relevant chamber.
Trainees are entitled to take the final examination if:
It is frequently the case that the company will automatically receive a registration from the chamber responsible, which in all cases is required to make public announcement of examination dates. The party providing training and the trainee merely need to sign and return the form.
The examination normally comprises a written part, a practical part and/or an oral component. More detailed provisions are contained within the training regulations governing the respective occupation.
The aim of the examination is to ascertain whether candidates are in possession of the necessary knowledge, skills and competencies, and whether they are familiar with the learning contents imparted at the vocational school and are therefore in a position to exercise in practice the occupation in which training has taken place. Candidates who have passed the examination receive a final certificate from the chamber (this is referred to as a “journeyman certificate” in the craft trades). The examination can be repeated on two occasions by candidates who do not pass. In such circumstances, training time is extended at the request of the trainee until the next possible examination date but may not be extended for more than one year.
Trainees who display very good levels of performance during training may be granted early admission to the examination. A relevant application must be submitted to the chamber.
A legally binding agreement between an apprentice or trainee and an employer which defines the rights and responsibilities of each party. These include the employer guaranteeing to train the apprentice or trainee in the agreed occupation or training area, and to allow time off work to attend any required off-the-job training; and the apprentice or trainee agreeing to learn all aspects of the occupation or training area, and to work for the employer for a specified period. It supersedes the indenture system.
Source: NCVER 2013, Australia
Training contract in the context of the German VET System:
Prior to commencement of training, the parties providing training and the future trainees conclude a contract. If a trainee is aged under 18, the consent of the parents must be obtained in order to conclude the contract. The company training contract is concluded for a fixed term. It ends following completion of the contractually agreed duration of training or when the final examination is passed.
The contract states
The amount of remuneration paid must be appropriate. The primary point of reference is the collective wage agreement that applies to the occupation and region. Training advisors at the chambers frequently have so-called tariff lists for this purpose. The employers’ associations and specialist trade unions are also able to provide information on collective wage agreements.
The training allowance must be increased for each new year of training.
In addition to the training contract, companies are required to draw up a company training plan. This records what trainees should learn during which periods of time. It enables company owners, trainers and trainees to plan which stages of learning need to be integrated into the company work process at which times.
The company submits the training plan to the relevant chamber of commerce and industry or chamber of crafts and trades together with the training contract. The chamber supports and monitors training to ensure that conditions are fulfilled. It also conducts examinations.
Programs for both secondary and postsecondary students which provide opportunities to achieve employment-related competencies in the workplace. Work-based learning is often undertaken in conjunction with classroom or related learning, and may take the form of work placements, work experience, workplace mentoring, instruction in general workplace competencies, and broad instruction in all aspects of industry.
Source: NCVER 2013, Australia
Processes and procedures for ensuring that qualifications, assessment and programme delivery meet certain standards.
Source: ILO (SED) 2007, Global