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Stakeholder of the German dual vocational education system

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The main stakeholders of the German dual VET systems are the federal government, the federal states, the social partners and the chambers.

The federal government…

  • has legislative powers for company-based vocational education and training,
  • is responsible for the content structure of the company-based element of the training occupations it has recognised,
  • recognises training occupations via a legal ordinance and stipulates binding requirements for the respective training and examination in training regulations,
  • funds measures for the support and innovation of vocational education and training and measures relating to the transitions at interfaces within VET,
  • and promotes vocational education and training research

The federal states …

  • bear full and sole responsibility for the school system in Germany,
  • draw up skeleton curricula for the vocational school which are harmonised with the training regulations for company-based training,
  • finance teaching staff (municipal authorities and local government districts are responsible for buildings and inventory),
  • and exercise legal scrutiny of the chambers.

The social partners ...

  • work together to develop proposals for the creation of new training occupations or for the modernisation of existing occupations,
  • appoint experts to prepare training regulations and skeleton curricula within the respective area of responsibility,
  • and conclude regulations in collective wage agreements relating to matters such as the amount of training allowances.

The chambers ...

  • advise companies and trainees,
  • monitor company-based training,
  • ascertain the suitability of companies and trainers,
  • register training contracts,
  • conduct examinations,
  • and set up a Vocational Education and Training Committee.

VET Glossary

Training allowance

Stipend or other payment made by an employer or from public funds to an employee undergoing training for a certain period, usually outside the normal place of work.

Source: UNEVOC/NCVER 2009, Global

VET Glossary

Curriculum (for VET school)

A detailed description of the objectives, content, duration, expected outcomes, learning and training methods of an education or training programme.

Source: ILO 2006, Global

VET Glossary

Training regulation

There are currently around 330 training occupations in Germany that enjoy national state recognition. For all training occupations, there are training regulations that stipulate in a binding fashion what must be learned within the respective occupation. This provides trainers with an overview of all contents that they need to impart to their trainees during training. Company owners obtain the relevant training regulations from the chamber responsible for their company.

The aim of the training regulations is to ensure that all trainees receive good professional training with comparable contents, regardless of the company in which such training takes place. This enables them to apply for jobs anywhere at a later date, and company owners also know precisely what applicants have learned. The regulations provide state-recognised occupations with a structure. The aim wherever possible is for each trainee to learn the fundamental principles of an occupation before going on to acquire the respective technical knowledge and gather initial professional experience.
The training regulations include the

  • title of the training occupation,
  • duration of training (two, three, or three and a half years),
  • the minimum skills, competencies and knowledge that trainees should acquire (training profile),
  • the content and time structure of training (general training plan) and
  • the examination requirements.

The general training plan forms the basis for the company training plan, which parties providing training are required to draw up for their trainees and submit to the chamber responsible together with the training contract.

The learning contents stipulated by the training regulations constitute minimum requirements. It may be in the company’s interests to teach their trainees more, such as company-specific knowledge or special skills. In addition, the company providing training may amend its plan during training for operational reasons.
After all, it is not always possible to plan three years in advance.

Source: Jobstarter

VET Glossary

Recognised training occupation

VET Glossary

Training occupation

„Ausbildungsberuf“ is a German term which usually is translated by the term "training occupation". It means a scientific, social and labour market-based construct and a category of order agreed by consensus between the social partners and the state. With the help of "Ausbildungsberufe" the selection and bundling of activities and the associated necessary qualifications is carried out. Mastery of the work tasks combined in a "Ausbildungsberuf" is the objective of the respective vocational training ("professional competence to act")

Source: IAB

VET Glossary

Company-based training

(In-company training):  The portion of the dual training system program where students/trainees receive practical learning by being integrated in the regular work system of an establishment.

Source: TESDA 2010, Philippines

c.f. also the dual system in the German VET system

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